A phase 1/2 clinical trial evaluating dosing, safety, immunogenicity, and overall survival on metastatic colorectal cancer ( mCRC ) patients after immunotherapy with an advanced-generation Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-CEA(6D) vaccine was performed.
Researchers reported the extended observations on long-term overall survival and further immune analyses on a subset of treated patients including assessment of cytolytic T cell responses, T regulatory ( Treg ) to T effector ( Teff ) cell ratios, flow cytometry on peripheral blood mononuclear cells ( PBMCs ), and determination of HLA-A2 status.
An overall survival of 20 % ( median survival 11 months ) was observed during long-term follow-up, and no long-term adverse effects were reported.
Cytolytic T cell responses increased after immunizations, and cell-mediated immune ( CMI ) responses were induced whether or not patients were HLA-A2 positive or Ad5 immune.
PBMC samples from a small subset of patients were available for follow-up immune analyses. It was observed that the levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-specific CMI activity decreased from their peak values during follow-up in five patients analyzed.
Preliminary results revealed that activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were detected in a post-immunization sample exhibiting high CMI activity.
Treg to Teff cell ratios were assessed, and samples from three of five patients exhibited a decrease in Treg to Teff cell ratio during the treatment protocol.
Based upon the favorable safety and immunogenicity data obtained, researchers have planned to perform an extensive immunologic and survival analysis on patients with metastatic colorectal cancer to be enrolled in a randomized / controlled clinical trial that investigates Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-CEA(6D) as a single agent with booster immunizations. ( Xagena )
Balint JP et al, Cancer Immunol Immunother 2015; Epub ahead of print